Essential Commands To Learn For Your Raspberry Pi Projects


Introduction

When yous become your easily on a Raspberry Pi for the very showtime time, y’all demand to install an operating arrangement with a Micro-SD card connected to information technology. Raspberry Pi not merely supports their official Raspberry Pi Os on the Raspberry Pi but too diverse other flavors of Linux distributions. And then in one case you lot install an operating organization on a Raspberry Pi, there are different ways of interacting with information technology.

  • Connecting a display through the HDMI connector to experience a user interface
  • Communicate through the serial interface
  • Communicate via an SSH connection remotely

When you connect to a brandish, you are presented with a user interface and it is easy to navigate around the operating system just like your personal computers. But when you brand a connection through series interface or remote SSH, you don’t take a user interface equally such. Just instead, y’all volition have to navigate around your Raspberry Pi via a command-line which is similar to the command prompt or PowerShell in a windows PC and terminal on a Macintosh.


Using a control-line you normally instruct the Raspberry Pi to perform tasks past entering commands via your keyboard, which is different from the traditional way of interaction, which is using a mouse. You might think that it is much easier to connect a display and employ a user interface to interact with a Raspberry Pi, but nevertheless, one time you go familiar with the command-line, your workflow is going to be much faster and besides you will have more control over your Raspberry Pi. You will be able to combine these commands together into scripts and run them to complete tasks more efficiently. Also, there could be projects where you need to deploy your Raspberry Pi in a different location and in this situation, control line is going to exist very useful.

This blog will assistance you get familiar with most of the useful commands that y’all will need in need to navigate through your Raspberry Pi and interact with it! Also, these commands will work with whatever Linux distribution on the Raspberry Pi and even any other systems running Linux!

Command-Line on the Raspberry Pi

Once y’all log in to the command-line on your Raspberry Pi, the first line will start with the prompt
[email protected] $.
This indicates that you lot have successfully logged in to your Raspberry Pi. You can enter your commands in the commands line in front of this text.


Updating the system

Once yous plough on your Raspberry Pi, it’s good practice to start off by updating your Raspberry Pi Operating System and it’south sources to the latest version. You tin can type the following commands to do so.

  • sudo apt-get update
  • sudo apt-get upgrade
  • sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
  • sudo rpi-update
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These commands tin can be entered one by one or they can as well exist combined as follows

sudo apt-become update && sudo apt-go upgrade && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade && sudo rpi-update

Note: You enter “sudo” at the first to tell the Raspberry Pi that you are entering the commands as a “root” user. This allows you to enter all the commands that are available inside Linux without any restrictions.

Navigating through files and folders

In that location are a few commands that you can use in club to navigate through your files and folders.

pwd :
stands for impress working directory and it shows you in which directory you are at

ls
: it volition list all contents of the directory y’all are at

ls -l
: it volition list all the contents of the directory you are at and show more details regarding the files

cd
: information technology is used alone to come up back to the root directory. Nevertheless, if you use “cd” in combination with a name of another binder in the electric current directory, it will switch you to that directory.

Example:
cd pifiles
will switch yous to a directory called “pifiles”.

cd.. :
information technology is used to move back from one directory to another

Perform file and folder operations

There are commands that you can use to perform functions such as making new folders, copying/moving/deleting files, and folders.

mkdir: it will create a new directory

Instance:
mkdir pidir
will create a new directory, where “pidir” is the label of the directory.

cp:
this volition help you to copy files from one directory to another

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Example:
cp /dwelling house/pi/new/file.txt /domicile/pi/projection/
will copy the file.txt from /domicile/pi/new/ directory and paste in to /abode/pi/project/ directory.

mv:
this will human action as a cut and paste command where the file will be moved from one directory to another. However, this command can exist used to rename file names that are in the same directory.

Example:
mv /abode/pi/new/file.txt /home/pi/project/
will move the file.txt from /home/pi/new/ directory to /habitation/pi/projection/ directory.

Example:
mv oldproject.txt newproject.txt
volition change the file name from oldproject to newproject

rm:
this will be useful to delete files that you no longer need anymore

Example:
rm testfile.txt
will delete the testfile.txt from its directory

clear:
this volition clear up all the commands in the current screen and brandish a clean new screen.

Creating a new file and editing the content

One time y’all create a file such as a text file, you might want to edit the contents inside this text file. For this, you lot might want to apply a control-line text editor such as GNU Nano. Past entering the control below yous will be able to create a new file called newproject.txt or edit an existing file names newproject.txt and will be presented with a infinite to add content inside this file.

nano newproject.txt

You lot can create or edit other types of files in the aforementioned way past just changing the file format such every bit newproject.py for python files and newproject.conf for configuration files

Once you create the newproject.txt text file, you lot will be able to navigate effectually the document using pointer keys and type content inside the document. Once you lot are done Press
Ctrl+x
on your keyboard and and so press
Y
when it asks you whether to save it.

Raspberry Pi hardware information

Sometimes you might want to check the hardware information on your Raspberry Pi and will be lost how to do so. Don’t worry. Yous tin use the commands beneath to cheque all the hardware information.

cat /proc/cpuinfo
: displays the processor information

true cat /proc/meminfo
: displays the Raspberry Pi memory informaton

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cat /proc/partitions
: displays the size and number of partitions on your SD card

true cat /proc/version
: displays which version of the Pi y’all are using

vcgencmd measure_temp
: shows the CPU temperature and information technology is important to check this if y’all are running heavy applications and desire to monitor the temperature

free -o -h
: this will brandish the available organization memory.

height d1
: This checks the CPU load and displays details for all cores.

df -h
: this can be useful to cheque the amount of free disk space on your Raspberry Pi.

uptime
: this displays the how long the Raspberry Pi was running and information technology’s load boilerplate.

Troubleshoot Raspberry Pi hardware

If you are looking for report on how the CPU and RAM on the Raspberry Pi are being taken upward by the running processes, you can enter the post-obit command

htop

This will be useful to bank check whether a item app is running and also find out whether which apps are slowly downwardly your Raspberry Pi. You lot tin press
ctrl+c
to exit from this window.

Also, if you are having problems with your network, enter the following command to list nigh the networks that y’all are continued to.

ifconfig

If yous are continued via Ethernet, bank check for eth0 section and if you are connected via Wi-Fi, check for wlan0 department. Besides, y’all tin have a wait at your IP address.

Shutdown and restart your Raspberry Pi

In that location are a couple of commands that you can use to instantly shutdown or restart your Raspberry Pi

sudo shutdown -h at present :
This volition immediately shut down your Raspberry Pi.

Nevertheless, if y’all want a schedules shutdown in two hours for instance, y’all should enter the control as follows
sudo shutdown -02:00

sudo reboot :
This volition immediately restart your Raspberry Pi

Conclusion

We hope after following the above commands, yous volition get more comfortable using the command-line to interact with your Raspberry Pi.

Essential Commands To Learn For Your Raspberry Pi Projects

Source: https://www.seeedstudio.com/blog/2020/06/11/28-raspberry-pi-linux-commands-a-quick-guide-to-use-the-command-line-for-raspberry-pi-m/